Skip to Main Content

Citing and Referencing: Citing & Referencing

Answer all of your citing and referencing needs here.

Modern Language Association

  Modern Language Association (MLA) citing and formatting are the the expected standards at Chinese International School. Perhaps you need general advice on MLA Formatting, or maybe you are seeking advice and insights on plagiarism. You will find help on that and more.

Traditionally speaking, English classes, the humanities, world languages, the arts, law, religion, and philosophy follow MLA formatting. Most important to MLA standard research is authorship. Emphasizing who originally came up with an idea is the most important element of any MLA research paper. While there are other formats out there (APA and Chicago being two prominent options), we use a single standard. The IB has provided a simple overview on Effective Citing and Referencing that you might find useful.




"As creators/authors, we are expected to acknowledge any materials or ideas that are not ours and that have been used in any way, such as quotation, paraphrase, or summary. The term 'materials' means written, oral or electronic products, and may include the following: 

  • Text, Visual, Audio, Graphic, Artistic, Lectures, Interviews, Conversations, Letters, Broadcasts, Maps.

Basic and common knowledge within a field or subject does not need to be acknowledged. However, if we are in doubt whether the source material is common knowledge or not, we should cite!"

from Effective Citing and Referencing, by the IB Programme of International Education, 2014


Citation Flowcharts

MLA Handbook

As a school policy, CIS adheres to the research standards and format set forth by the Modern Language Association (MLA).

Get It?